Lionel Transformer Kw

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LIONEL POSTWAR TYPE KW 190 WATTS TRANSFORMER  GREAT SHAPE
LIONEL POSTWAR TYPE KW 190 WATTS TRANSFORMER GREAT SHAPE


Vintage LIONEL KW 190 Watt Transformer
Vintage LIONEL KW 190 Watt Transformer


Postwar Lionel KW 190 Watt Train Transformer in Original Box
Postwar Lionel KW 190 Watt Train Transformer in Original Box


LIONEL TRANSFORMER KWR 190 Watt 2 Train Control w New Rollars
LIONEL TRANSFORMER KWR 190 Watt 2 Train Control w New Rollars


Transformer KW
Transformer KW


Lionel KW 190 Watt A C Transformer for O 027 gauge w ZENER diode runs 2 trains
Lionel KW 190 Watt A C Transformer for O 027 gauge w ZENER diode runs 2 trains


Lionel Transformer KW With Track
Lionel Transformer KW With Track


LIONEL POSTWAR KW 190 WATT TRAINMASTER 2 TRACK TRANSFORMER W THE ORIGINAL BOX
LIONEL POSTWAR KW 190 WATT TRAINMASTER 2 TRACK TRANSFORMER W THE ORIGINAL BOX


LIONEL KW TRANSFORMER
LIONEL KW TRANSFORMER


Lionel kw transformer to run 2 trains rebuilt in prime condition
Lionel kw transformer to run 2 trains rebuilt in prime condition


LIONEL POSTWAR TRAIN KW 190 WATT TRANSFORMER GOOD ORIGINAL W ENVELOPE
LIONEL POSTWAR TRAIN KW 190 WATT TRANSFORMER GOOD ORIGINAL W ENVELOPE


Vintage Lionel Trainmaster Type KW Transformer 190 Watt
Vintage Lionel Trainmaster Type KW Transformer 190 Watt


 LIONEL KW TRANSFORMER IN ORIGINAL BOX
LIONEL KW TRANSFORMER IN ORIGINAL BOX


Lionel KW Transformer Top Handle Complete w Badge
Lionel KW Transformer Top Handle Complete w Badge


Lionel KW 190 Watt Transformer Top Control Handle
Lionel KW 190 Watt Transformer Top Control Handle


LIONEL KW 190 WATT TRANSFORMER A  B HANDLES W SPACER  DIRECTION BUTTONS
LIONEL KW 190 WATT TRANSFORMER A B HANDLES W SPACER DIRECTION BUTTONS


Lionel KW190 Trainmaster Transformer
Lionel KW190 Trainmaster Transformer


Lionel KW 190 Watt Transformer Bottom Control Handle
Lionel KW 190 Watt Transformer Bottom Control Handle


Lionel KW transformer
Lionel KW transformer


LIONEL KW 190 Watt Transformer Just Professionally Serviced
LIONEL KW 190 Watt Transformer Just Professionally Serviced


Lionel KW Transformer 190 watts  new cord  checks out fine lot  3306
Lionel KW Transformer 190 watts new cord checks out fine lot 3306


Lioner KW 190 Watt Transformer 50 65
Lioner KW 190 Watt Transformer 50 65


LIONEL KW 190w 2 Train Transformer Professionally restored Excellent shape
LIONEL KW 190w 2 Train Transformer Professionally restored Excellent shape


Lionel Trainmaster Type KW 190 Watts Transformer NICE
Lionel Trainmaster Type KW 190 Watts Transformer NICE


Vintage Lionel PostWar KW Transformer 190 Watts with Box
Vintage Lionel PostWar KW Transformer 190 Watts with Box


LIONEL TYPE KW MULTI CONTROL TRAINMASTER TRANSFORMER
LIONEL TYPE KW MULTI CONTROL TRAINMASTER TRANSFORMER


1950s Lionel Trainmaster Type KW Transformer 115 Volts 60 Cycles 1
1950s Lionel Trainmaster Type KW Transformer 115 Volts 60 Cycles 1


1950s Lionel Train Master Type KW Transformer
1950s Lionel Train Master Type KW Transformer


Vintage Lionel Trainmaster Type KW Trian Transformer 15 Volt 60 Cycles 190 Watts
Vintage Lionel Trainmaster Type KW Trian Transformer 15 Volt 60 Cycles 190 Watts


LIONEL TYPE KW 190 WATT MULTI CONTROL TRAINMASTER TRANSFORMER OB WORKS GOOD
LIONEL TYPE KW 190 WATT MULTI CONTROL TRAINMASTER TRANSFORMER OB WORKS GOOD


50 LIONEL V 45 Carbon Rollers  50 ZW 102 Pin rivets for ZW  KW Transformer
50 LIONEL V 45 Carbon Rollers 50 ZW 102 Pin rivets for ZW KW Transformer


100 LIONEL V 45 Carbon Rollers  100 ZW 102 Pin rivets for ZW  KW Transformer
100 LIONEL V 45 Carbon Rollers 100 ZW 102 Pin rivets for ZW KW Transformer


Transformers of varied sizes and configurations are at the heart of all power systems. As a critical and an expensive component of the power systems, transformers play an important role in power delivery and the integrity of the power system network as a whole. Transformers, however, have operating limits beyond which the transformer loss of life can occur. If subjected to adverse conditions there can be a heavy damage to the system and system equipment, besides intolerable interruption of service to the customers. Since the lead time for repair and replacement of transformers is usually very long, limiting the damage to faulted transformers is the foremost objective of transformer protection.

Economic impact of a transformer failure

• The direct economic impact of repairing or replacing the transformer.
• The indirect economic impact due to production loss.

Operating conditions like transformer overload, through faults, etc often result in transformer failure, highlighting a need for transformer protection functions, such as over excitation protection and temperature-based protection. Extended functioning of the transformer under abnormal condition such as faults or overloads can compromise the life of the transformer. Adequate protection should be provided for quicker isolation of the transformer under such conditions. The type of protection used should reduce the disconnection time for faults within the transformer and minimize the risk of catastrophic breakdown to simplify eventual repair.

Transformer Failure

 The risk of a transformer failure is two-dimensional: the frequency of failure, and the severity of failure.

Most often transformer failures are a result of "insulation failure". This category includes inadequate or defective installation, insulation deterioration, and short circuits, as opposed to exterior surges such as lightning and line faults.


Failures in transformers can be classified into

• Winding failures resulting from short circuits (turn-turn faults, phase-phase faults, phase-ground, open winding)

• Core faults (core insulation failure, shorted laminations)

• Terminal failures (open leads, loose connections, short circuits)

• On-load tap changer failures (mechanical, electrical, short circuit, overheating)

• Abnormal operating conditions (overfluxing, overloading, overvoltage)

• External faults

Other causes of transformer failure may include


Overloading

- Transformers that experience a sustained loading that exceeds the nameplate capacity often face failure due to overloading.

Line Surge
  - Failure caused by switching surges, voltage spikes, line faults/flashovers, and other T&D abnormalities suggests that more attention should be given to surge protection, or the adequacy of coil clamping and short circuit strength.

Loose Connections 
- Loose connections, improper mating of dissimilar metals, improper torquing of bolted connections etc can also lead to failures in transformers.

Oil Contamination
- Oil contamination resulting in sludging, carbon tracking and humidity in the oil can often result in transformer failure.

Design/Manufacturing Errors- This includes conditions such as: loose or unsupported leads, loose blocking, poor brazing, inadequate core insulation, inferior short circuit strength, and foreign objects left in the tank.

Improper Maintenance/Operation - Inadequate or improper maintenance and operation are a major cause of transformer failures. It includes disconnected or improperly set controls, loss of coolant, accumulation of dirt & oil, and corrosion.

External Factors - Several external factors like floods, fire explosions, lightening and moisture can be established as the causes of the failure as well.

Transformers Protection Best Practices

Transformer failures and safety hazards can be avoided or minimized by ensuring that the conductors and equipment are properly sized, protected and adequately grounded. Incorrect installation of transformers can result in fires from improper protection, as well as electric shock from inadequate grounding.

*Once the transformer is placed, the tank must be permanently grounded with a correctly sized and properly installed permanent ground.

*Access should be restricted to the transformer liquid-filled compartment in conditions of excessive humidity or rain.

* Dry air should be continuously pumped into the gas space if humidity exceeds 70%.

*Transformer should be given protection against rain such that no water gets inside.

*All equipment used in the handling of the fluid (hoses, pumps, etc.) should be clean and dry. If the insulating liquid for inspection is drawn out, its level should not go below the top of windings.

* Sufficient gas pressure must be maintained to allow a positive pressure of 1 psi to 2 psi at all times (even at low ambient temperature) when liquid-filled transformers are stored outside.

* Final inspection of the transformer is essential before it is energized. All electrical connections, bushings, draw lead connections should be checked.

* Upon loading the transformer should be kept under observation during the first few hours of operation. All temperatures and pressures should be checked in the transformer tank during the first week of operation.

* Surge arresters must be installed and connected to the transformer bushing / terminals with the shortest possible leads to protect the equipment from line switching surges and lightning.

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Lionel ZW Replacing a Roller